1. Descartes is chiefly responsible for what is known as mind-body dualism. He put forth the notion that the mind and body are separate and distinct entities and, as such, they do not impact one another. The pendulum has swung in both directions over the centuries, that is, from dualism to holism. However, today the more widely accepted perspective is holism or the bidirectional influence of mind and body. What are some of the disadvantages of a dualistic perspective in psychology? Reference:Gatchel R.J. and Baum A. An Introduction to health psychology. Menlo Park, CA:Addison-Wesley, 1983.
2. A great deal of learning takes place through social learning. For example, much of the aggressive behavior that is occurring among children and adolescents today is believed to have been established through social learning; that is, by imitating the violent, aggressive models they see on television and in video games. In fact, the research shows that children who consume a great deal of media violence at age 8 are more likely than their counterparts to have a criminal record by age 30. Children who consume a great of media violence also tend to be more self-centered and less concerned about other people. Do you agree with the aforementioned assertions? Why or why not?
Huesman, L.R., & Miller, L.S. (1994). Long-term effects of repeated exposure to media violence in childhood. In L.R. Huesmann (Ed.), Aggressive behavior: Current perspectives. New Yourk: Plenum.
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Johnson, J.G., Cohen, P., Smailes, E., M., Kasen, S., & Brook, J.S. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295, 2468-2471.
3. If the root cause of a maladaptive behavior is not found and changed, then the individual is likely to develop another behavior, symptomatic of the causal factor(s). For example, a person overeats because he or she is depressed. The person enrolls in a weight loss program and successfully loses weight. If the person is still depressed after weight loss, what are some ways in which her or she might still manifest depression?